Papers & Presentations

Session 1 - Quality Management Models - implementation

Chair: Stephen Clarke - Eurostat (European Commission)

The Quality Assurance Framework in Japan
Yasunori Sawamura & Susumu Kubo - Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC), Japan
Paper - Presentation

The business case of quality management at Statistics Netherlands
Kees Zeelenberg & Max Booleman- Statistics Netherlands
Paper - Presentation

Lessons learnt from different approaches to the implementation of quality initiatives
Narissa Gilbert - Austalian Bureau of Statistics
Katy Stokes & Caroly Fyfe- Statistics New Zealand
Paper - Presentation

PCBS experience in implementing ISO 9001
Marwan Barakat & Ali Al-Husien - Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS)
Paper - Presentation

Recent organisational and technological reforms of Finnish National Accounts reflected by the EFQM-model
Sari Kuisma - Statistics Finland
Paper - Presentation

Session 2 - Code of Practice - Implementation

Chair: Martina Hahn - Eurostat (European Commission)

The ESS Quality Assurance Framework and its role in supporting the Code of Practice
Stephen Clarke - Eurostat (European Commission)
Paper - Presentation

Quality Management in Government Finance Statistics
Alexandre Makaronidis, Colin Stewart, Juraj Hustava - Eurostat (European Commission)
Paper - Presentation

NSIís Coordinating Function and implementing the European Statistics Code of Practice - Enhancing Quality in Statistics at the Portuguese National Statistical System
Helena Cordeiro & Maria Joao Zilhao - Statistics Portugal
Paper - Presentation

From the European Statistics Code of Practice to review of Norwegian statistics
Hans Viggo Saebo, Jan Byfuglien, Gustav Haraldsen, Peder Naes - Statistics Norway
Paper - Presentation

Implementing a Quality Assurance Framework based on the Code of Practice at the INE Spain
Pedro Revilla & Ascuncion Pinan - Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, Spain
Paper - Presentation

Session 3 - Measuring Quality - Products

Chair: Ioannis Moschakis - Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT), Greece

Quality assessment of the registers and large administrative data sets
Rudi Seljak - Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia
Paper - Presentation

A Tool for Managing Product Quality
Paul Biemer - RTI International Dennis Trewin - Australian Statistician
Lilli Japec, Heather Bergdahl, Ake Pettersson, - Statistics Sweden
Paper - Presentation

Statistical Quality Control and the Operational Risk Management Framework
Antonio Agostinho, Alexandra Miguel, Manuela Raminhos - Bank of Portugal
Paper - Presentation

Development of quality reporting system in agricultural and fisheries statistics and multidimensional use of results
Sorina Carmen Vaju - Eurostat (European Commission)
Paper - Presentation

Session 4 - Measuring Quality - Process 1

Chair: Antonio Baigorri - Eurostat (European Commission)

Quality in the EUSTAT statistical operations process
Enrique Moran Alaez & Victoria Garcia Olea - Basque Statistics Office-Eustat, Spain
Paper - Presentation

System of measurement & monitoring of processes in Statistics Lithuania
Bronislava Kaminskiene - Statistics Lithuania
Paper - Presentation

Survey processesí quality and its effect on the output quality
Ioannis Nikolaidis - Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT), Greece
Paper - Presentation

Integration of Quality Guidelines into an Internal Control System (ICS)
Thomas Burg & Werner Holzer - Statistics Austria
Presentation

Increased Automated Data Processing: Measuring the Impact on Quality
Thomas Helmert - DESTATIS, Germany
Paper - Presentation

Session 5 - Measuring Quality - Process 2

Chair: Ioannis Tzougas - Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT), Greece

The re-engineering of the Structural Earnings survey process: Mixed - Mode data collection and new E&I process indicators
Fabianna Rocci, Stefania Cardinaleschi, Stefano De Santis - ISTAT, Italy
Paper

Quality Management in the Swedish price statistics
Martin Kullendorff & Annika Norlen - Statistics Sweden
Paper - Presentation

When do you hear the Warning Bells?
Pedro Cunha, Jorge Magalhaes, Sonia Quaresma - Statistics Portugal
Paper - Presentation

Session 6 - Quality Assessment

Chair: Zsuzsanna Kovacs - Eurostat (European Commission)

OECD Quality Framework and Review
David Brackfield - OECD
Paper - Presentation

Quality assessment in ISTAT: The combined use of standard quality indicator analysis and audit procedures
Marcello DíOrazio, Riccardo Carbini, Marina Signore - ISTAT, Italy
Paper - Presentation

Survey quality and respondent burden across the UK Government Statistical System
John-Mark Frost- ONS, United Kingdom
Paper - Presentation

Enhancing the impact of Assessment
Richard Laux & Mark Pont - UK Statistics Authority, United Kingdom
Paper - Presentation

Session 7 - Standardization tools 1

Chair: Marie Joao Zilhao - Instistuto Nacional de Estatistica, Portugal

Standard for Statistical Processes
Peter Van Nederpelt - Statistics Netherlands
Paper - Presentation

A standardisation tool for credit institutionsí statistical and supervisory reporting requirements
Paolo Poloni - European Central Bank (ECB) & Vincenzo Capone - Bank of Italy
Paper - Presentation

ISTAT statistical process modelling and the Generic Statistical Business Process Model: a comparison
Giovanna Brancato & Giorgia Simeoni - ISTAT, Italy
Paper - Presentation

A strategy at Statistics Sweden to test data collection instruments
Andreas Persson & Eva Elvers - Statistics Sweden
Paper - Presentation

Session 8 - Standardization tools 2

Chair: Marie Joao Zilhao - Instistuto Nacional de Estatistica, Portugal

Use of Vignettes in business statistics in testing a new definition of the enterprise
Dominique Francoz - Eurostat (European Commission)
Paper - Presentation

Validating and evaluating multiply-imputed country datasets: the case of the Eurosystem Household Finance and Consumption Survey
Juha Honkkila, Carlos Sanchez Munoz, Martin Zeleny - European Central Bank (ECB)
Paper - Presentation

Coherence assessment of the Greek HFCS with comparable data sources
Panagiota Tzamourani - Bank of Greece
Paper - Presentation

Session 9 - MEMOBUST

Chair: Jean Ritzen - Statistics Netherlands, The Netherlands

Standardisation of methodological handbooks in the ESS
Wilhelmus Kloek - Eurostat (European Commission) & Katalin Szep (HCSO)
Presentation

Development and structure of the Memobust Handbook
Leon Willenborg, Sander Scholtus, Arnout Van Delden - Statistics Netherlands
Paper - Presentation

Microintegration - description in the Memobust handbook
Marco Di Zio - ISTAT, Italy
Paper - Presentation

Design - description in the Memobust handbook
Eva Elvers - Statistics Sweden
Paper - Presentation

Session 10 - Communicating quality to users

Chair: Nancy Xenaki - Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT), Greece

Quality reports towards better meeting usersí needs
Vergil Voineagu, Ilie Dumitrescu, Gabriela Popa - National Institute of Statistics, Romania
Paper - Presentation

Didactical Aspects in the Dissemination Process and the World of Open Data
Ulrike Rockmann - State Statistical Office Berlin-Brandenburg, Germany
Presentation

Session 11 - Satisfying user needs

Chair: Anne Sundvoll - Statistics Norway

Pros and Cons of Internet based user satisfaction surveys
Antonio Consoli & Lauri Matsulevits - Eurostat (European Commission)
Paper - Presentation

Feedback from users of statistics
Jiri Kubin - Czech Statistical Office
Paper - Presentation

Usersí perception of statistics for improvement actions
Ioannis Nikolaidis - Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT), Greece
Paper - Presentation

Measuring clientís satisfaction - the integrated management System of the Post-Service Satisfaction Survey at Statistics Portugal
Maria Joao Zilhao & Magda Ribeiro - Statistics Portugal
Paper - Presentation

Session 12 - Managing Resources

Chair: Anne Sundvoll - Statistics Norway

Career planning of experts as a tool for developing statistical competence; Case Statistics Finland
Paivi Koivuniemi, Hanna Barlund, Sanni Jormakka - Statistics Finland
Paper - Presentation

Experiences on training Human Resources for the National Population Census 2010 in Argentina
Liliana Severino &Marta Ruggieri - Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Argentina
Paper - Presentation

Successful quality work in times of tight resources
Sibylle von Oppeln-Bronikowski & Mirko Herzner - DESTATIS, Germany
Paper - Presentation

Session 13 - Enterprise Architecture Strategy

Chair: Daniel Defays - Eurostat (European Commission)

Branding without branding: Coordination and requested endorsement in the Israeli NSS
Olivia Blum - Central Bureau of Statistics, Israel
Paper - Presentation

Using Aggregate Quality Audit Findings as the Nexus for Organizational Change
Joel Fowler & Steven Klement - US Census Bureau, USA
Paper - Presentation

Reengineering statistical operations in NSIs - The practical challenges of culture and leadership
Keith Mc Sweeney - Central Statistics Office (CSO), Ireland
Paper - Presentation

Implementing the ESS Vision: an enterprise architecture perspective on a few key ESS initiatives
Jean-Marc Museux, Guliano Amerini, Hakan Linden, Fabienne Montaigne - Eurostat (European Commission)
Presentation

Session 14 - Enterprise architecture in practice

Chair: Jean Marc Museux - Eurostat (European Commission)

New Zealand's statistical system for the future: Delivering BESt quality economic statistics
Katy Stokes & Chris Toohey - Statistics New Zealand
Paper - Presentation

Redesign of the system of Economic Statistics in the Netherlands
Jorrit Zwijnenburg - Statistics Netherlands
Paper - Presentation

The benefits of Service Level Agreements in implementing the process approach
Joseph Keating & Susana Portillo - Central Statistics Office (CSO), Ireland
Paper - Presentation

Towards an EU architecture of statistical information systems, based on standardised software and harmonised metadata
Hans Stol - STOL Consult & F. Groters, The Netherlands
Paper - Presentation

Session 15 - Re-engineering production systems

Chair: Maria Dologova, Statistical Office of Slovak Republic

Integrated Data Collection System on business surveys in Statistics Portugal
Paulo Saraiva dos Santos & Carlos Valente - Statistics Portugal
Paper - Presentation

Session 16 - Re-engineering - Process improvement and standards

Chair: Siobhan Carey - Chief Statistician, Ministry for Business, United Kingdom

Business Process Management at the Federal Statistical Office of Germany - Process Improvement and Process Standardization based on the GSBPM
Hans-Peter Lueues - DESTATIS, Germany
Paper - Presentation

ISO 20252; Turning framework into best practice
Bill Blyth - TNS, United Kingdom
Paper

Improving the Production Process of the Irish Retail Sales Index (Satisfying Customersí Needs Using Lean Six Sigma Thinking)
Patrick Foley - Central Statistics Office (CSO), Ireland
Paper - Presentation

The GSBPM contribution to statistical business process standardization
Blagica Novkovska, Helena Papazoska, Biljana Ristevska Karajovanovikj - State Statistical Office of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Paper - Presentation

Lean Six Sigma techniques and their relevance to the work of NSIs
Graham Sharp - ONS, United Kingdom
Paper - Presentation

Session 17 - Metadata

Chair: Ioannis Nikolaidis - Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT), Greece

Implementing a corporate wide metadata driven production process at INE Spain
Pedro Revilla, Jose Manuel Bercebal, Fransisco Hernandez, Jose Luis Maldonado - Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, Spain
Paper - Presentation

Quality control of FATS statistics using XML-based metadata
Teemu Oinonen - Statistics Finland
Paper - Presentation

Using citations & deviations from internationally accepted statistical methodologies in SDDS Metadata to communicate quality to users
Ethan Weisman & Tim Gibson- Statistics Department, IM
Paper - Presentation

Session 18 - Administrative data to estimate

Chair: Fannie Cobben, Statistics Netherlands

Yearly Estimates of Services Surveys Using Administrative Data
Haritz Olaeta & Patxi Garrido - Basque Statistics Office-Eustat, Spain
Paper - Presentation

Use of VAT and VIES data for validation in International Trade in Goods and Services
Soren Burman & Soren Rich - Statistics Denmark
Paper - Presentation

Confronting various administrative data sources to estimate employment variables

Paper - PresentationGuy Vekeman - Statistics Belgium

Session 19 - Use of administrative data for estimating economic variables

Chair: Nancy Xenaki - Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT), Greece

Using administrative data to estimate survey variables not directly available from administrative sources
Daniel Lewis - ONS, United Kingdom
Paper - Presentation

Can we build monthly turnover indices of branches crossing Value Added Tax returns and Structural Business Statistics?
Jean-Francois Loue, Laurent Wilms, Ketty Attal-Toubert- INSEE, France
Paper - Presentation

VAT-data for monthly turnover estimates in Estonia; some quality aspects
Ethel Maasing- Statistics Estonia
Paper - Presentation

Session 20 - ESSnet Admin Data

Chair: Siobhan Carey - Chief Statistician, Ministry for Business, United Kingdom

Legal barriers, quality issues: what really hampers a wider use of administrative data in business statistics?
Luigi Costanzo - ISTAT, Italy
Paper - Presentation

Checking the Usefulness and Initial Quality of Administrative Data
Frank Verschaeren - Statistics Belgium
Paper - Presentation

Development of Quality Indicators for business statistics involving administrative data
Emma Newman - ONS, United Kingdom
Paper - Presentation

Session 21 - Administrative data: Quality

Chair: Fannie Cobben, Statistics Netherlands

Design and Estimation of surveys to measure data quality aspects of administrative data
James Brown - University of Southampton, United Kingdom
Oksana Honchar - National Academy Statistics, Ukraine
Paper - Presentation

A quality monitoring system for statistics based on administrative data
Manuela Lenk, Eliane Schwerer - Statistics Austria
Predrag Cetkovic, Stefan Humer, Mathias Moser, Matthias Schnetzer - Vienna University of Economics and Business
Paper - Presentation

How to fulfil user needs - metadata, administrative data and processes
Lars Thygesen & Mogens Grosen Nielsen - Statistics Denmark
Paper - Presentation

Session 22 - Census

Chair: Nancy Xenaki - Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT), Greece

Quality management system on Census in Egypt
Metwaly Hussien Awad - CAPMAS, Egypt
Paper - Presentation 1 - Presentation 2

The use of administrative sources as a means to complete and improve the quality of the information from the 2011 Population and Housing Census
Maria Pilar Martinez Rollon & Enrique Moran Alaez - Basque Statistics Office-Eustat, Spain
Paper - Presentation

Quality assurance in the Portuguese Census 2011: The Map of Alert
Alvaro Rosa, Elizabeth Reis, Paula Vicente - University Institute of Lisbon, Portugal
Paper - Presentation

Quality requirements to be met by the register of addresses and buildings during the implementation phase of the 2011 Census
Cordula Schoneich, Halina Stepien, Katja Ziprik - DESTATIS, Germany
Paper - Presentation

Session 23 - BLUE ETS

Chair: Wilhelmus Kloek - Eurostat (European Commission)

Quality of registers and accuracy of register statistics
Thomas Laitila - Statistics Sweden and Orebro University
Paper - Presentation

Evaluation and visualisation of the quality of administrative sources used for statistics
Piet Daas, Saskia Ossen, Martijn Tennekes, Joep Burger (Presentation by Fannie Cobben) - Statistics Netherlands
Paper - Presentation

An approach to derive indicators monitoring the quality of chains of statistical production processes
Arnout Van Delden & Peter-Paul De Wolf - Statistics Netherlands
Li-Chun Zhang and Johan Fosen - Statistics Norway
Paper - Presentation

On the accuracy of register-based census employment statistics
Li-Chun Zhang - Statistics Norway
Paper - Presentation

Session 24 - Combining data

Chair: Johan Van der Valk - Eurostat (European Commission)

Quality benefits from a spatial data infrastructure
Marie Haldorson - Statistics Sweden
Paper - Presentation

A quality framework for matching EU social surveys
Aura Leulescu & Mihaela Agafitei - Eurostat (European Commission)
Paper - Presentation

How to record design information in EU-SILC for measuring accuracy while respecting confidentiality
Fabienne Montaigne, Mihaela Agafitei, Emilio Di Meglio - Eurostat (European Commission)
Paper - Presentation

Integrated measurement of household-level income, wealth and non-monetary well-being in Finland
Veli-Matti Tormalehto, Olli Kannas, Markku Sayla - Statistics Finland
Paper - Presentation

Session 25 - Estimation

Chair: Ioannis Nikolaidis - Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT), Greece

Estimation of confidence intervals using a new empirical likelihood approach
Yves Berger & Omar De La Riva Torres - University of Southampton, United Kingdom
Paper - Presentation

The ESANE estimation kit or how to get more detailed results with quality indicators
Julien Seng - INSEE, France
Paper - Presentation

Session 26 - Experimental statistics

Chair: M. Bohata - Eurostat (European Commission)

Towards a Eurostat framework for disseminating innovative/experimental statistics
Marie Bohata, Martina Hahn, Antonio BaigoriGian Luigi Mazzi, - Eurostat (European Commission)
Paper - Presentation

Experimental data as part of the ECB statistical production and dissemination policy
Aurel Schubert - European Central Bank (ECB)
Paper - Presentation

Well-being indicators. Questions of quality. The perspective of official statistics
Susana Garcia-Diez - DESTATIS, Germany
Paper - Presentation

Producing Statistics Fit for Use - UK Experimental Statistics
John-Mark Frost, Catherine Davies, Emma Newman, Frank Nolan, Jennet Woolford, - ONS, United Kingdom
Paper - Presentation

Comparative indicators of wellbeing in Europe
Eric Harrison - City University London, United Kingdom
Ineke Stoop - The Netherlands Institute for Social Research
Paper - Presentation

Session 27 - Innovation in data collection

Chair: Stephanie Eckman - Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Germany

Would Scanner Data improve the French CPI?
Sebastien Faivre - INSEE, France
Paper - Presentation

Automated Data Collection in Accommodation Statistics
Juha-Pekka Konttinen - Statistics Finland
Paper - Presentation

Improving the quality of complex surveys: The case of the EU Labour Force Survey
Johan van der Valk - Eurostat (European Commission)
Paper - Presentation

Session 28 - Issues in complex surveys

Chair: Keith Mac Sweeney - Central Statistics Office (CSO), Ireland

Selected aspects of implementation of Household Budget Survey 2010
Andrea Bielakova, Helena Glaser-Opitzova, L'udmila Ivancikova - Statistical Office of Slovak Republic
Paper - Presentation

Statistical matching of data from complex sample surveys
Marcello DíOrazio, Marco Di Zio, Mauro Scanu - ISTAT, Italy
Paper - Presentation

Accounting for Complex Survey Designs in Multiple Imputation to Reduce Item Nonresponse Bias
Hanzhi Zhou, Michael Elliott, Trivellore Raghunathan - University of Michigan, USA
Presentation

Flexible and homogenous variance estimation in a cross-country survey under confidentiality constraints
Sebastien Perez-Duarte & Malgorzata Osiewicz - European Central Bank (ECB)
Paper - Presentation

Session 29 - Measurement Error

Chair: Keith Mac Sweeney - Central Statistics Office (CSO), Ireland

Improving Measurement of Sexual Orientation in US Health Surveys
Virginia Cain - National Center for Health Statistics, USA
Paper - Presentation

Mechanisms of Misreporting to Filter Questions
Stephanie Eckman & Antje Kirchner - Institute for Employment Research, Germany
Annette Jackle & Stanley Presser - University of Essex, United Kingdom
Frauke Kreuter & Roger Tourangeau - College Park, Maryland, USA
Presentation

Using administrative data in multivariate selective editing: an application to the Italian survey on ICT usage and e-commerce
Orietta Luzi, Teresa Buglielli, Ugo Guarnera, Alessandra Nurra, Franca Silvestri - ISTAT, Italy
Paper - Presentation

Quality control of coding of survey responses at Statistics Sweden
Jorgen Svensson - Statistics Sweden
Paper - Presentation

Session 30 - Non-response I

Chair: Kari Djerf - Statistics Finland

The relationship between non-response and representativity in a survey on education completed abroad
Hilde Eirin Pedersen & Elisabeth Falnes-Dalheim - Statistics Norway
Paper - Presentation

Non-response measurement: R-indicators and further treatments in EUSTAT
Jorge Aramendi, Elena Goni, Anjeles Iztueta - Basque Statistics Office-Eustat, Spain
Paper - Presentation

Does increased effort lead to a less representative response? Selected case studies from the Australian Bureau of Statistics
Rosslyn Starick & Jack Steel - Australian Bureau of Statistics
Paper - Presentation

What can be said about quality in the Central Population Register based on a self-completion survey among immigrants?
Elisabeth Falnes-Dalheim & Hilde Eirin Pedersen - Statistics Norway
Paper - Presentation

Session 31 - Non-response II

Chair: Ioannis Moschakis - Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT), Greece

Effects of non-response on survey estimates of political participation
Richard Ohrvall & Mikaela Jarnbert - Statistics Sweden
Paper - Presentation

Mode and non-response effects and their treatment
Sofoklis Chrysanthopoulos & Adamantia Georgostathi - Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT), Greece
Paper - Presentation

Nonresponse in comparative studies
Enhancing Response Rates and Minimising Nonresponse Bias
Ineke Stoop - The Netherlands Institutes for Social research /SCP, Netherlands
Paper - Presentation

Session 32 - Paradata

Chair: Stephanie Eckman - Institute for Employment Research, Germany

Using Paradata to monitor survey production, cost, and quality within an Adaptive Total Design Framework
Susan Mitchell, Lisa Carley-Baxter, David Cunningham, Michael Keating - RTI International, USA
Paper - Presentation

Evaluating the measurement error of interviewer observed paradata
Jennifer Sinibaldi - Institute for Employment Research, Germany
Gabriele Durrant - University of Southampton, UK
Frauke Kreuter - University of Maryland, USA
Presentation

Discussion

Session 33 - Quality Management System

Chair: Maria Dologova, Statistical Office of Slovak Republic

A Systematic Strategic Data Collection Management System in Statistics Norway
Bengt Oscar Lagerstrom & Bente Thommassen - Statistics Norway
Paper

The General Survey Systems Initiative at RTI International
Lisa Thalji, Craig Hill, Susan Mitchell, Daniel Pratt, Howard Speizer, R. Suresh -RTI International, USA
Paper

Session 34 - Questionnaire Design

Chair: Alexandre Makaronidis - Eurostat (European Commission)

How to provide high data quality in online-questionnaires: Setting guidelines in design
Simone Tries, Sophia Nebel, Karen Blanke - DESTATIS, Germany
Paper - Presentation

Between demand and reality: Ensuring efficiency and quality in pretesting questionnaires
Sabine Sattelberger & Karen Blanke- DESTATIS, Germany
Paper - Presentation

Qualitative approach to studying quality of Finnish time-use survey diaries
Kaisa-Mari Okkonen - Statistics Finland
Paper - Presentation

Session 35 - Response burden

Chair: Stelios Zachariou, Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT), Greece

Measuring cost efficiency and response burden in statistical surveys
Daniel Vorgrimler, Gorja Bartsch, Florian Spengler - DESTATIS, Germany
Paper - Presentation

Measure the response burden in the Swedish Intrastat system
Frank Weideskog - Statistics Sweden
Paper - Presentation

Session 36 - Seasonal Adjustments

Chair: Stelios Zachariou, Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT), Greece

Quality Issues in the Seasonal Adjustment of arrivals and number guests in Italian Accommodations
Anna Ciammola & Antonio Paradiso - ISTAT, Italy
Presentation

Reconciliation of seasonally adjusted data with application to the Swedish quarterly national accounts
Yingfu Xie & Suad Elezovic - Statistics Sweden
Paper - Presentation

Session 37 - Web Surveys

Chair: A. Consoli - Eurostat (European Commission)

Choosing a Data Collection Approach: Mixed Mode Design Experiences in Statistics Finland
Pertti Taskinen & Nelli Kiianmaa - Statistics Finland
Paper - Presentation

Boosting Web pick-up rates by referring to compliance principles
Elisabeth Falnes-Dalheim, Gustav Haraldsen, Anne Sundvoll - Statistics Norway
Paper - Presentation 1 - Presentation 2